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Excuses for Missing Work (Good and Bad Reasons)

Best and Worst Excuses for Getting Out of Work

According to a CareerBuilder survey, 40% of workers took a fake sick day during 2020, the most recent year for which data was available. That was up from 35% the previous year.

We could speculate about why workers feel compelled to call in sick when they’re well. But, the most important thing to you, the potential malingerer reading this article, is to protect yourself from the negative repercussions of faking a sick day. The best way to do that is to be honest – or as honest as you possibly can be, under the circumstances.

As Mark Twain once said, “If you tell the truth, you don’t have to remember anything.” The best excuses for getting out of work are truthful ones. Everyone needs a day off now and then. Before you assume that you need a more fanciful explanation, examine your real reasons and ask yourself if they’re legitimate. The list below can give you a sense of what’s acceptable.

And then, for contrast, read on for some truly terrible excuses for missing work. (Hint: llama-related reasons are typically not persuasive to managers.)

Good Excuses for Missing Work

If you are concerned about using the “I need a sick day” excuse too many times and want to be creative, here are some work excuses that might work when you need a reason to take time off from your job:

  • Appointments (financial planner, accountant, lawyer, etc.)
  • Babysitter problems
  • Car troubles
  • Child has to get a physical (for school or sports)
  • Colonoscopy (nobody wants to question that)
  • Death in the family (be careful not to use frequently)
  • Delivery (appliances or other major purchase)
  • Doctor or dentist appointment
  • Family emergency (you don’t need to share details)
  • Family illness (child, elderly parent, other family member)
  • Furnace needs emergency repairs
  • Leaky pipes
  • Medical procedures
  • Medical tests
  • Migraine
  • Root canal
  • School closed
  • New baby in the family

Coming in Late or Leaving Early

You may need to come up with a different excuse if you’re going to be late or want to leave work early. The best excuses for being late to work are simple and common – think weather or traffic. The best excuses for leaving early include professional pursuits, like networking events, or personal obligations, like volunteer work.

Tips for Giving an Excuse

As we’ve said, honesty is the best policy when it comes to giving excuses for getting out of work. However, if the reason you need a day off isn’t acceptable for an excused absence, one of the reasons listed above may be one you can use.

Don’t go into an elaborate explanation – the longer the excuse, the more likely your employer is to think you are lying, and the less likely you will be able to remember it. Also, be sure to tell your boss about your absence as soon as possible.

If you know you’ll need to take time off, mention it to your boss ASAP.

The best way to do this is by calling the office as soon as possible, or emailing your boss, especially if you’re calling in sick. If your company has a particular policy for calling in, be sure to follow those guidelines.

Worst Excuses for Missing Work

There are some reasons you should never give for calling in sick. An earlier survey from CareerBuilder listed some of the most absurd reasons for calling in, including the following:

  • The employee said the ozone in the air flattened his tires.
  • The employee’s pressure cooker had exploded and scared her sister, so she had to stay home.
  • The employee had to attend the funeral of his wife’s cousin’s pet because he was an uncle and pallbearer.
  • The employee was blocked in by police raiding her home.
  • The employee had to testify against a drug dealer, and the dealer’s friend mugged him.
  • The employee said her roots were showing, and she had to keep her hair appointment because she looked like a mess.
  • The employee ate cat food instead of tuna and was deathly ill.
  • The employee said she wasn’t sick, but her llama was.
  • The employee had used a hair remover under her arms and had chemical burns as a result. She couldn’t put her arms down by her sides due to that.
  • The employee was bowling the game of his life and couldn’t make it to work.
  • The employee was experiencing traumatic stress from a large spider found in her home. She had to stay home to deal with the spider.
  • The employee said he had better things to do.
  • The employee ate too much birthday cake.
  • The employee was bitten by a duck.

Write a Good Excuse Note or Email

Many companies require some kind of formal excuse note whenever you have an absence, such as a sick day or a vacation day.

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Keep the note brief and professional. Review sample absence letters before you write your note. In the letter, state when and why you were off – or are planning to be. If you send a note ahead of your absence, include whether you have asked coworkers to take over any tasks.

While you might be tempted to go over your symptoms to prove you really were sick, ignore the urge and just be straightforward. Resist the urge to apologize, either for being sick or for the inconvenience.

Mention if/when you will be available. If you are sending your note in advance of your absence, it’s a good idea to share if you will be available, and the best way to reach you. We live in a smartphone era, which means that many people are constantly checking email (even when they’re sitting in a paper gown in the doctor’s office). Specify if you will be checking your email, and how frequently. You might write, “I’ll be checking my email occasionally” or “I’ll be largely away from my email but do not hesitate to call me if there is an emergency.”

Send your note promptly. If you are sending it the day of an absence, send the email in the morning, before the official start time at your company.

What Can Happen if You Get Caught in a Lie

Do keep in mind that, even if you use what you think is a good excuse, being dishonest can cost you your job if you’re caught.

Don’t think that your employer won’t check up on you. There is always a chance that they will. CareerBuilder’s survey reports that 38% of employers who responded have checked up on an employee to confirm their excuse for missing work. Some employers have asked to see a doctor’s note, and others have called the employee to check in on them. Some have even driven to the employee’s house.

Be Careful About Social Media

If you don’t tell your boss the truth, be very careful about using social media. According to CareerBuilder’s survey, 43% of employers surveyed have caught an employee lying about being sick by checking their social media. Double-check your privacy settings so you are aware of who can see what you post.

Even if you’re careful about privacy though, don’t post a status, message, or photo that contradicts what you told your boss. Your boss might not see it, but if you’re friends with other people at work, it could easily get back to your manager if you’re not out of the office for the reason you gave.

The Bottom Line

Honesty Is the Best Policy: If you don’t lie, you can’t get caught. Ask yourself if your real reason for being absent is sufficient.

Notify Your Manager Right Away: Call or email your boss ASAP and let them know that you’ll be out. Review company policy for requirements.

Don’t Give TMI: You don’t need to provide a lot of detail when making your excuse, especially if your reason is personal.

Stay Off Social Media: Especially if you do choose to stretch the truth, resist the urge to post during your absence. Even if your privacy settings are locked up, word may get out.

Ребята, выручайте. Ну очень нужно! Заранее огромное спасибо!

Обратите внимание на выделенные слова и употребите необходимое в данном случае время.
1) The nurse already (to estimate) the number of blood cells.
2) Any patients pulse rate never (to be) regular on physical exertion.
3) The doctor just (to discharge) my mother from the hospital.
4) Recently his respiratory rate (to increase) considerably.
5) Today the surgeon (to complete) the operation.
6) The patient (to lose) 3 kg of weight this month.
7) The teasher (to finish) to examine his students this week.
8) You (to determine) the number of this patients heart beats?
9) She (not to serve) in the hospital.
10) The scientist (to estimate) the amount of blood pumped by the heart daily.
11) The young scientist (to publish) many articles since 2000.
12) I (not to see) him sience he got his work appointment.
13) My brother (not to take) any treatment since he was discharged from the hospital

Текст книги “Английский язык для студентов заочной формы обучения”

Представленный фрагмент произведения размещен по согласованию с распространителем легального контента ООО “ЛитРес” (не более 20% исходного текста). Если вы считаете, что размещение материала нарушает чьи-либо права, то сообщите нам об этом.

Оплатили, но не знаете что делать дальше?

Автор книги: Татьяна Минакова

Жанр: Учебная литература, Детские книги

Текущая страница: 5 (всего у книги 14 страниц) [доступный отрывок для чтения: 10 страниц]

2.3.3.1 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания

marketing research – исследование маркетинга;

marketing manager – управляющий маркетингом;

need – нужда, нуждаться;

to tabulate – составлять таблицу;

to take charge of – руководить;

to handle – обрабатывать (документы);

top manager – главный управляющий;

to assume – предполагать;

to define – определять;

available – имеющийся в наличии;

to set up – создавать;

product – продукт; товар, изделие;

tangible – осязаемый, материальный;

to own – владеть;

to perform – выполнять;

to provide – обеспечивать;

party – участник, сторона;

to develop – разрабатывать;

to meet – удовлетворять (потребности), соответствовать;

to survive – выживать;

life cycle – жизненный цикл;

failure – неудача, крах, банкротство;

brand – марка (изделия);

branding – присвоение товару марочного названия;

trademark – торговая марка, торговый знак;

legal term – юридический термин;

craft guild – ремесленная гильдия;

merchant guild – торговая гильдия;

purchase – покупка, покупать;

sales volume – объем реализованной продукции;

costs – издержки, затраты;

2.3.3.2 Задание 3. Прочитайте тексты А, В, С, переведите их письменно

Тext А. Marketing Research

The marketing concept says that marketing managers should meet the needs of customers. This means marketing managers have to rely on help from marketing research – procedures to develop and analyze new information to help marketing managers make decisions.

Most large companies have a separate marketing research department to plan and carry out research projects. These departments often use outside specialists – including interviewing and tabulating services – to handle technical assignments. Further, specialized marketing consultants and marketing research organizations may be called in to take charge of a research project.

Small companies usually don’t have separate marketing research departments. They depend on salespeople or top managers.

Good marketing research requires much more than just technical tools. It requires cooperation between researchers and marketing managers.

The scientific method combined with the strategy planning framework can help marketing managers make better decisions.

The scientific method forces an orderly research process. The marketing research process is a five-step application of the scientific method that includes: defining the problem; analyzing the situation; getting problem-specific data; interpreting the data; solving the problem.

Defining the problem is the most important – and often the most difficult – step in the marketing research process. Sometimes it takes up over half the total time spent on a research project. But it’s time well spent if the objectives of the research are clearly defined. The best research job on the wrong problem is wasted effort.

The situation analysis is an informal study of what information is already available in the problem area. It can help define the problem and specify what additional information – if any – is needed.

The next step is to plan a formal research project to gather primary data. There are different methods for collecting primary data. Which approach to use depends on the nature of the problem and how much time and money are available.

When data has been collected it has to be analyzed to decide what it all means. In quantitative research this step usually involves statistics. Statistical packages – easy–to–use computer programs that analyze data – have made this step easier.

In the problem solution step, managers use the research results to make marketing decisions.

When the research process is finished the marketing manager should be able to apply the findings in marketing strategy planning – the choice of a target market.

A marketing information system (MIS) is an organized way of continually gathering and analyzing data to provide marketing managers with information they need to make decisions. In some companies, an MIS is set up by marketing specialists. In other companies, it is set up by a group that provides all departments in the firm with information. Marketing managers often don’t know in advance exactly what questions they will have – or when. But they do know what data they have routinely used or needed in the past. They can also foresee what types of data might be useful. They should communicate these needs to the MIS manager so the information will be there when they want it.

Routinely analyzing incoming data can be valuable to marketing managers. But incoming data shouldn’t be their only source of information for decision-making. Marketing information systems tend to focus on recurring information needs. But marketing managers must try to satisfy ever-changing needs in dynamic markets. So marketing research must be used – to supplement the data already available in the MIS system.

Text C. Product and New-Product Development

Product means the need-satisfying offering of a firm.

You already know that a product may be a physical good or a service or a blend of both. A good is a tangible item. When you buy it, you own it. And it’s usually pretty easy to see exactly what you’ll get. On the other hand, a service is a deed performed by one party for another. When you provide a customer with a service, the customer can’t “keep” it. Services are not physical – they are intangible. You can’t “hold” a service. Most products are a combination of tangible and intangible elements.

Competition is strong and dynamic in most markets. So, it is essential for a firm to keep developing new products – as well as modifying its current products – to meet changing customer needs and competitor’s actions. New-product planning is not an optional matter. It has to be done just to survive in today’s dynamic markets. A new product is one that is new in any way for the company concerned. A product can become “new” in many ways. A fresh idea can be turned into a new product – and start a new life cycle. Even small changes in an existing product can make it “new”. A product can be called “new” for only a limited time. Six months is the limit according to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – the federal government agency that policies antimonopoly laws.

New-product development demands effort, time, and talent – and still the risks and costs of failure are high.

2.3.3.3 Задание 4. Ответьте на вопросы по текстам А, В, С

1 Why do marketing managers have to rely on help of marketing research?

2 What does a good marketing research require?

3 Can the scientific method help marketing managers make better decisions?

4 What steps does the market research process include?

5 Defining the problem is the most important and difficult step, isn’t it?

6 Does the quantitative research involve statistics?

7 What is a market information system used for?

8 Are incoming data the only source of information for decision – making?

9 What needs must marketing managers try to satisfy?

10 Is a good a tangible item?

11 New product planning is not an optional matter, is it?

12 What does new product development demand?

2.3.4 Тексты для студентов специальности «Экономика и управление на предприятии», «Менеджмент организации», «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Управление персоналом»

III семестр для специальностей «Экономика и управление на предприятии», «Менеджмент организации», «Государственное и муниципальное управление»

2.3.4.1 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

the like – подобное;

existence – существование, жизнь;

responsibility – ответственность, обязанность;

aim, goal, target, objective – цель;

to define – определить, давать определение;

to forecast – предсказывать;

to accept – принимать, признавать;

to involve in – вовлекать;

to make decision – принимать решение;

to diversify – разнообразить;

to run smoothly – работать плавно;

to respond to – реагировать на;

to chase up supplies – гоняться за поставками;

urgent order – срочный заказ;

to spell out – разжевывать (зд. расписать, подчеркнуть);

to set objectives – ставить цель;

analytical ability – аналитические способности;

as a team – как одна команда;

superior – старший, начальник;

in relation to – относительно к;

to measure – оценивать;

to get on well with – иметь хорошие отношения с;

integrity – цельность; честность.

to have much in common – иметь много общего;

to depend on the level (position) – зависеть от должности;

to spend a great deal of time – тратить много времени;

to meet (to perform) objectives – достигать цели;

interpersonal skills – межличностые навыки;

least understood – наименее попятный;

personnel department – отдел кадров;

to recruit (to hire) – принимать на работу;

training courses – подготовительные курсы;

to possess – обладать, владеть;

to chair a meeting – быть председателем собрания (заседания, совещания);

to post a list of vacancies – вывешивать список вакансий;

notice board – доска объявлений;

to be referred for a position – быть назначенным на должность;

a set of qualifications – перечень качеств;

standard application form – стандартный бланк;

one-to-one interview – интервью “один на один”;

panel interview – интервью с несколькими претендентами;

“deep” end interview – интервью, во время которого претендент обязан показать наглядно владение специальностью;

to cope with – справляться с чем-либо;

to be aware of– осознать;

organization culture – взаимоотношения в организации;

data processing – обработка данных.

2.3.4.2 Задание 2. Прочитайте тексты А, В переведите их письменно

Text A. The manager’s role

Our society is made up of all kinds of organisations, such as companies, government departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all these organisations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager although they do not have that title. The vice-chancellor of a university, the president of a students’ union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have a responsibility to use the resources of their organisation effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Are there certain activities common to all managers? Can we define the task of a manager? A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in, 1916 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control. This definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about command, they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers.

Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful. However, in most companies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as the chairman and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how it should face up to the competition, whether it should diversify etc. These strategic decisions are part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.

On the other hand, middle management and supervisors are generally making the day-to-day decisions which help an organisation to run efficiently and smoothly. They must respond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with an unhappy customer, chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organisation.

An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform five basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these should be and how the organisation can achieve them. For this task, they need analytical ability. Secondly, managers organise. They must decide how the resources-of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of human beings. Their third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to get people to work as a team, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels of the organisation – their superiors, colleagues, and subordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organisation, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger and richer persons.

In Peter Drucker’s view, successful managers are not necessarily people who are liked or who get on well with others. They are people who command the respect of workers, and who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses but must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

2.3.4.3 Ответьте на вопросы

1. What is our society made up of?

2. What is the definition of manager’s role?

3. What decisions will the managers be making?

4. What do we call the “strategic decisions”?

5. What decisions are middle management and supervisors generally making?

6. How many basic operations do managers perform?

7. What ability does manager need to fulfill the first basic operation?

8. What must manager do secondly and thirdly?

9. What are manager’s fourth and fifth tasks?

10. What kind of people, in Pater Drucker’s view, should successful managers be?

2.3.4.4 Text B. Business Structure

Each company has its business structure. Many companies have much in common in their structures. The number of departments in corporation depends on the size of the company and on the nature of the goods and services it provides. All departments are headed by managers.

In most companies the activity of a manager depends on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers are involved in long range planning, policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. Middle management and supervisors make day-to-day decisions. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

Effective managers meet their company’s objectives through a successful combination of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. In order to perform these management functions, managers need not only organizational and technical but also interpersonal skills. Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people.

A corporation with many employees may need a personnel department. Personnel department recruits new employees and organizes training courses. A qualified personnel manager should possess good communication skills. He/she should be able to chair a meeting, to conduct an interview with job applicants. There are many ways in which an organization can recruit personnel. Posting a list of vacancies on the company notice board is fairly common. A subordinate may be referred for a position by his/her superior. Advertising is a commonly used technique for recruiting people from outside. The personnel manager has two sets of qualifications to consider if he wants to choose from among the applicants. He/she must consider both professional qualifications and personal characteristics. A candidate’s education, experience and skills are included in his/her professional qualifications. These can be listed on a resume (American English) or CV (Curriculum Vitae – British English). Many companies expect all personal information to be entered on a standard application form. Personal characteristics must be evaluated through interviews. There are different kinds of interviews: traditional one-to-one interviews, panel interviews where one or more candidates are interviewed by a panel of interviewers and even ‘deep-end’ interviews where applicants have to demonstrate how they can cope in actual business situations. The atmosphere of an interview may vary from the informal to the formal ones.

A good manager should be aware of the type of organization culture his/her corporation adheres to. There are now five broad fields of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, finance, and data processing. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of management you can specialize as a general manager, a production manager or a personnel manager.

2.3.4.5 Ответьте на вопросы

1 What does the number of departments in corporation depend on?

2 Who is the head of all departments?

3 What are the top managers and middle managers and middle management involved in?

4 What skills do all managers need?

5 What department may a corporation need? 6 What does personal department do?

7 What kinds of interview do you know?

8 What should a good manager be aware of?

9 How many broad manager be aware of? What are they?

III семестр для специальности «Управление персоналом»

2.3.4.6 Задание 1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

Text A. What is Personal Management?

personnel [.pasa’nel] management – руководство кадрами;

recruiting [n’kruitin] – вербовка, набор, наем;

hiring [‘haiann] – наем (сотрудников);

to encourage – поощрять;

to encounter – встретиться, столкнуться (с чем-л.);

salary scale – шкала заработной платы, тарифная сетка, расценки;

to put in(to) practice – осуществлять;

fringe benefits – дополнительные Льготы (пенсия, оплаченные отпуска и т.п.);

development – улучшение, усовершенствование;

to develop – развивать;

employee development – усовершенствование служащих;

direct compensation of employees – прямые выплаты служащим;

employee benefits – пособия работающим по найму;

employee (personnel) policy – кадровая политика;

operating procedure – способ эксплуатации;

organization plan – схема организационной структуры;

personnel department – отдел кадров;

to implement – выполнять, осуществлять;

policy – стратегия, политика, линия поведения, установка, курс;

policy definition – выработка стратегии;

placement – определение на должность;

labor relations – трудовые отношения;

to afford – позволить себе;

assessing – оценка, определение;

screening – (тщательная) проверка, рассмотрение, отбор;

employee trust – ответственность сотрудников;

guideline – директива, указание;

explicit [iks’phsrt] – ясный, подробный; подробно разработанный;

well-proven – хорошо отработанный;

expediency [iks’pi:d39nsi] – целесообразность; выгодность;

job analysis – анализ производственных операций путем разбиения их на элементы; изучение трудовых операций;

job title – название должности;

job description – должностная инструкция;

mental requirements – психические ограничения;

physical requirements – физические ограничения;

manual dexterity – ловкость, быстрота, сноровка, проворство рук;

hazard [‘haezed] – риск;

job specification – квалификационные требования к исполнителю работы.

2.3.4.7 Задание 2. Прочитайте тексты А, В переведите их письменно

Text A. What is Personal Management?

Personnel management is concerned with the effective use of the skills of people. They may be salespeople in a store, clerks in an office, operators in a factory, or technicians in a research laboratory. In a business, personnel management starts with the recruiting and hiring of qualified people and continues with directing and encouraging their growth as they encounter problems that arise in working toward established goals.

In addition to recruiting and hiring, some of the responsibilities of a personnel manager are:

1 To classify jobs and prepare wage and salary scales.

2 To counsel employees.

3 To deal with disciplinary problems.

4 To develop safety standards and to put them into practice.

5 To manage fringe benefit programs, such as group insurance, health, and retirement plans.

6 To provide for periodic reviews of the performance of each individual employee, and for recognition of his or her strengths and needs for further development.

7 To assist individuals in their efforts to develop and qualify for more advanced jobs.

8 To plan and supervise training programs.

9 To be informed of developments in personnel management. Personnel managers often deal with the following difficult situations concerning the employees:

– The firm’s employees – especially-the most qualified ones – can get better jobs with other employers.

– When a firm has not enough supervisory and specialized personnel with adequate experience and job capabilities, it has to train and develop its own people. This can be time consuming and expensive.

– The cost of hiring and training employees at all levels is increasing, for instance, several thousand dollars for a person. A mistake in hiring or in slow and inefficient methods of training can be costly.

– Most employees want better direct compensation, employee benefits, and working conditions that the firm cannot afford, but other employers can. So, all employee policies and operating procedures should be developed with great care.

The personnel department has the responsibility to define and implement policies, procedures and programs for recruitment, selection, training, placement, safety, employee benefits, compensation, labor relations, organization planning, and employee development.

Effective human resource management develops the abilities of job candidates and employees to meet the needs of the firm. Human resource (HR) management is a balancing act. At one extreme, you hire only qualified people who are well suited to the firm’s needs. At the other extreme, you train and develop employees to meet the firm’s needs. Most expanding businesses fall between the two extremes i.e., they hire the best people they can find and afford, and they also recognize the need to train and develop both current and new employees as the firm grows.

Functions of Personnel Management

One function of personnel management is to hire and train the right people. The effective personnel system is:

– Assessing personnel needs.

– Selecting and hiring personnel.

– Orienting new employees to the business.

– Deciding compensation issues.

The second function of human resource management is the training and development of employees.

A third function is raising employee trust and productivity. These three functions stress the importance of a good human resource management climate and provide specific guidelines for creating such a climate.

Text B. Developing a Personnel System

Assessing Personnel Needs

The firm’s personnel policies should base on explicit, well-proven principles. Firms that follow these principles have higher performance and growth rates than those that do not follow them. The most important of these principles are:

– All positions should be filled with people who are both willing and able to do the job.

– A written job description and definition are necessary.

– Employees chosen on the basis of the best person available are more effective than those chosen on the basis of friendship or expediency.

– Employee training results in higher performance.

The process of selecting a competent person for each position is best accomplished through a systematic definition of the requirements for each job, including the skills, knowledge and other qualifications that employees must possess to perform each task. To guarantee that personnel needs are adequately specified personnel manager has to:

1) conduct a job analysis,

2) develop a written job description, and

3) prepare a job specification.

Job analysis is a systematic investigation that collects all information related to each task performed by an employee. From this analysis, you identify the skills, knowledge and abilities required of that employee, and determine the duties, responsibilities and requirements of each job. Job analysis should provide information such as

– Job description – major and implied duties and responsibilities.

– Characteristics of the job including location.

– Types of material used.

– Types of equipment used.

– Mental and physical requirements.

– Manual dexterity required.

– Working conditions (inside, outside, hot, cold, dry, wet, noisy, dirty, etc.).

The job analysis is used to generate a job description, which defines the duties of each task, and other responsibilities of the position. The description covers the various task requirements, such as mental or physical activities; working conditions and job hazards. The approximate percentage of time the employee should spend on each activity is also specified. Job descriptions focus on the what, why, where and how of the job.

The best way to develop job descriptions is to ask employees themselves to describe their jobs. A good employee may know more about the job than anyone else.

Job Specif ication

The job specification describes the person expected to fill a job. It details the knowledge, education, qualities, skills and abilities needed to perform the job satisfactorily. The job specification provides a standard to measure how well the worker matches a job. The job specification should be used as the basis for recruiting.

2.3.4.8 Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы по текстам А, B

1 What are the responsibilities of a personnel manager? Name them.

2 What difficult situations concerning the employees may be encountered by personnel managers?

3 What are the responsibilities of personnel department?

4 What are the three functions of personnel management?

5 What are the most important principles of a firm’s personnel policies?

6 What is a job analysis?

7 What information is contained in a job analysis?

8 What is a job description?

9 What information is contained in a job description?

10 What is a job specification?

11 What information is contained in a job specification?

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Career Guide

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At some point during the interview process, you may be asked to describe your personal strengths and weaknesses. Many job candidates are unsure about how to approach this question. However, by establishing the appropriate context, you can give hiring managers an honest, thoughtful answer that highlights both your self-awareness and professionalism.

Preparing ahead of time for this question is a valuable use of your time before the interview. Even if you aren’t asked about your strengths and weaknesses specifically, scripting out your response to this common question will give you a candid yet compelling description of what you bring to the table and how you wish to grow in the future. With these talking points at the ready, you’ll be able to confidently answer many common interview questions.

In sections below, you’ll find example answers, example strengths and weaknesses and tips on how to prepare your response.

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“What are your greatest weaknesses?” example answers

You may be asked about your strengths and weaknesses in one question, or you may be asked about them in two separate questions. In the event that you are asked about strengths and weaknesses at the same time, discuss your weakness first so that you can end on a positive note.

When addressing your weaknesses, draw upon examples relating to either skills/habits or personality traits. You may want to choose which to focus on depending on the type of job for which you’re interviewing. For example, discussing a skill or habit may be highly relevant for a technical position. For a sales or customer service role, your interviewer may be more interested in hearing about your personality traits. Neither choice is strictly wrong or right. Reread the job description for clues on what may matter most for this specific role.

The formula for your answer is easy to follow: First, state your weakness. Second, add additional context and a specific example or story of how this trait has emerged in your professional life. That context will give potential employers insight into your level of self-awareness and commitment to professional growth. In the example answers below, you’ll see the weakness followed by context sentences in italics:

Example weakness 1: self-critical

“I can be too critical of myself. A pattern I’ve noticed throughout my career is that I often feel I could have done more, even if objectively, I’ve done well. Earlier in my career, this led to burnout and negative self-talk. One solution I’ve implemented over the last three years is to actively pause and celebrate my achievements. Not only has this helped my own self-esteem, but it has also helped me genuinely appreciate and recognize my team and other support systems.”

Example weakness 2: lacking confidence

“I’m naturally shy. From high school and into my early professional interactions, it prevented me from speaking up. After being a part of a workgroup that didn’t meet our strategic goals two quarters in a row, I knew I owed it to my team and myself to confidently share my ideas. I joined an improv acting class—it’s fun and has really helped me overcome my shyness. I learned practical skills around leading discussions and sharing diverse perspectives. Now, in group settings, I always start conversations with the quieter folks. I know exactly how they feel, and people can be amazing once they start talking.”

Example weakness 3: difficulty asking questions

“I default to believing that I can solve any problem on my own. This works well in some situations, but in many cases, I need the help of others to overcome factors beyond my control. In one instance last year, I was spearheading a client event that had a lot of moving parts. It wasn’t until after the event that I realized how narrowly I had pulled it off. I was trying to manage everything from the strategic plan down to the tiniest details, like table settings. I did a lot of self-reflection afterward. Since then, I’ve been training myself to take a step back before diving into problem-solving mode and identify people or groups that can be resources to me.”

Example weakness 4: lacking experience

“I’m not familiar with the latest version of [ insert name of non-critical software ] . Instead, I’ve focused on [ insert name of preferred software ] because user-centric design has become a strong passion of mine. In my last few jobs, that’s where I’ve spent time learning and growing.”

Example weakness 5: procrastination

“I’ve always been a procrastinator. I used to think it wasn’t such a bad habit because I was only creating stress for myself. But when I was working for XYZ Company several years ago, I was on a group project where I could see how my putting things off to the last minute created stress for everyone else. It was a wake-up call. I started creating daily schedules that hold me accountable to my team, and I broke the habit. It was hard at first, but using the Agile process was a real breakthrough in my workflow and mindset.”

Example weakness 6: perfectionism

“I tend to be a perfectionist and can linger on the details of a project which can threaten deadlines. Early on in my career, when I worked for ABC Inc., that very thing happened. I was laboring over the details and in turn, caused my manager to be stressed when I almost missed the deadline on my deliverables. I learned the hard way back then, but I did learn. Today I’m always aware of how what I’m doing affects my team and management. I’ve learned how to find the balance between perfect and very good and being timely.”

Example weakness 7: difficulty with an area of expertise

“Math wasn’t my strongest subject in school. To be honest, as a student, I didn’t understand how it would be applicable in my adult life. Within a few years of being in the working world, though, I realized that I wanted to take my career in a more analytical direction. At first, I wasn’t sure where to begin, but I found some free online courses that refreshed the important basics for me. In my most recent job, this new foundation has enabled me to do my own goal setting and tracking. Actually, getting over the math anxiety I had when I was younger has been incredibly empowering.”

Of course, you’ll need to personalize the above examples according to your personal weakness and the ways that you’re adapting and improving yourself.

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List of example weaknesses

Because we all have weaknesses but rarely want to admit to them, it’s best to begin with a truthful answer and build your script from there. Select an answer that a hiring manager would not consider to be essential qualities or skills for the position as well as qualities that you are actively improving.

Some examples of weaknesses include:

  • Disorganized
  • Self-critical/sensitive
  • Perfectionism (note: this can be a strength in many roles, so be sure you have an example of how perfectionism can be a problem to demonstrate that you’ve thought deeply about this trait)
  • Shy/Not adept at public speaking
  • Competitive (note: similarly to perfectionism, this can be a strength)
  • Limited experience in a nonessential skill (especially if obvious on your resume)
  • Not skilled at delegating tasks
  • Take on too much responsibility
  • Not detail-oriented/too detail-oriented
  • Not comfortable taking risks
  • Too focused/lack of focus

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“What are your greatest strengths?” example answers

It’s surprisingly difficult for many people to talk about their strengths during an interview. It’s challenging to balance your humility with the need to project confidence. As with weaknesses, you can generally choose between skills/habits and personality traits. Use the job description as your guide as you select your strengths. Follow the same formula of strength + context and story. When providing context for your strengths, address the specific qualities that qualify you for the job and distinguish you as a candidate.

Here are some examples:

Example strength 1: leadership skills

“I’ve always been a natural leader. With more than 10 years of experience in finance and sales, I’ve exceeded my KPIs every quarter and have been promoted twice in the past five years. I look back at those successes and know that I wouldn’t have reached them if I hadn’t built and led teams composed of highly skilled and diverse individuals. I’m proud of my ability to get cross-functional groups on the same page. I’ve regularly honed my management skills through 360 reviews and candid sessions with my team, and I know continuing to build my leadership skills is something I want from my next role.”

Example strength 2: collaboration skills

“I’m very collaborative and have always preferred to work in groups. In the project teams I’ve directed, members work with a variety of people and are motivated by diverse creative tasks. Since I began managing my current team, I’ve increased productivity by 15 percent and retention by 25 percent over three years.”

Example strength 3: interpersonal skills

“I’m an empathetic person who’s skilled at relating to people and making them feel heard. In one memorable instance from earlier this year, I was on a support call with a customer whose contract we had terminated. Reinstating the service agreement would have increased her rates dramatically. She was understandably upset and felt trapped because she couldn’t be without car insurance for her and her family. It became clear very quickly that we couldn’t meet her needs but I wanted her to walk away with a favorable impression of the service we had provided. I talked her through some of her other options, even letting her know of other providers who might be able to offer her a lower rate so she could avoid a lapse in coverage. In the feedback survey from that interaction, she specifically mentioned that she would still be recommending our services to others. In my career in customer support, I’ve had many interactions like this—they are complex but end with the customer still feeling positive.”

Example strength 4: technical skills (software)

“I’m obsessed with the newest version of [ insert name of new software ] . I started pushing the boundaries of what it could do as soon as it was released. I’m excited about applying my passion and abilities to this position and pushing the envelope of this program for your company.”

Example strength 5: technical skills (writing)

“I have extremely strong writing skills. I’ve worked as a copywriter for eight years in several industries, and am committed to both creative excellence and performance metrics when it comes to my work. I’ve had to learn how to find the perfect balance between that creativity and analytics, and it’s a personal passion of mine to demonstrate what good writing can achieve for the bottom line—in advertising or otherwise.”

Example strength 6: persistence

“I’m thorough and tenacious. When I’m on a project, I keep track of the details. Because I have a comprehensive understanding of the components, I can spot the essentials and rigorously advocate for them to meet deadlines. I regularly see this reflected in my peer and management feedback.”

Example strength 7: organization skills

“I never miss a deadline. I’m highly organized, and I’ve applied my natural skill for organizing people and projects to all aspects of my work. After seven years of working as a project manager, I’ve had only one late product launch. From that experience, which took place three years ago, I learned a crucial lesson about trade-offs. I spent time addressing a crucial design need and that pushed everything else back. I wouldn’t trade the lessons I learned from that experience for anything—being sure to communicate to stakeholders about upcoming roadblocks chief among them.”

As with the weaknesses examples, you’ll need to adjust your strength choices and responses according to your experience and skills. When you write your script, keep in mind a few additional tips:

  • Don’t list multiple, vague strengths. Stay focused on one or two key qualities that relate directly to the role and support them with specific, relevant examples.
  • Don’t make jokes.
  • Don’t be arrogant, inflate your strengths or lie about your abilities.
  • However, don’t be too humble or underestimate yourself.

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List of example strengths

If you aren’t sure about your strengths, ask some of your friends or colleagues what they see as your best qualities. Refer to any written feedback you’ve received in the past from peers or managers.

Some examples of strengths include:

  • Action-oriented/entrepreneurial
  • Attentive/detail-oriented
  • Collaborative
  • Committed/dedicated
  • Creative
  • Determined
  • Disciplined/focused
  • Empathetic
  • Enthusiastic/passionate/driven
  • Flexible/versatile
  • Honest
  • Innovative
  • Patient
  • Respectful

Remember, as you prepare your response to the “What are your strengths and weaknesses?” interview question, it’s important to:

  • Ensure your strengths support the job description and set you apart as a candidate
  • Not be overly humble
  • Be specific in your responses

Though often one of the most dreaded interview questions, when you take time to prepare a thoughtful response, you can create a unique story about who you are and where you want to go. As you prepare your answers, turn weaknesses into challenges that you’ve overcome and strengths into the reason you’re a great fit for the job.

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