CFD trading glossary. CFD terms and expressions explained

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Common CFD Terms Explained

21 Oct Common CFD Terms Explained

One of the first problems encountered when one starts to deal with Computational Fluid Dynamics is understanding keywords. Here we suggest a list that can be a good starting point for every novice. Feel free to ask for/add more in the comment section!

CFD. It is an acronym for Computational Fluid Dynamics. Fluid Dynamics is the science that describes the motion of a fluid (gas or liquid) by means of mathematical equations. These equations, when solved, give the values of all quantities which describe the fluid motion, like velocity, pressure, temperature. The attribute Computational indicates that these equations are solved by means of numerical methods. So, basically, CFD is a numerical method that can be implemented on a computer that, solving mathematical equations, describes the behaviour of a given fluid in a given condition. CFD is used in a wide set of fields, here some examples: to describe the air motion around a vehicle, the fluid motion inside a valve, the smoke dispersion inside a parking lot. (More CFD Application examples here)

(Computational) Domain. Sometimes also called Bounding Box , it is the portion of space represented in the analysis. The fluid motion described by means of CFD needs to be confined in space. In case the analysis deals with the flow around an object (like a car or an airplane), this one is typically put inside a Box . The box represents the portion of surrounding space that will be taken into account when evaluating interaction between the object and the fluid. It is reasonable to think that a car will influence the motion of surrounding air up to some tens of meters around it. So that the Domain can be chosen consequently, being confident that the analysis will accurately represent all features of the fluid motion.

Grid/Mesh. To describe the motion of the fluid means knowing values of its velocity, pressure, temperature. CFD is used to evaluate these quantities inside the Computational Domain , more precisely in subparts of it. In fact, the Domain is divided in small pieces, called cells , where equations are solved and quantities are calculated. The entire set of cells is what is called the Computational Grid or Mesh . In every cell one single value for each quantity (velocity, pressure, temperature) is stored.

Cell. It is the basic element of the Computational Grid/Mesh . In every cell one single value for each quantity (velocity, pressure, temperature) is stored.

Example of a mesh of a brain

Compressible/Incompressible flow. If in the analysis are involved changes in the fluid density, the flow is said to Compressible , otherwise it is called Incompressible . Incompressible flows are those involving liquid but also air if velocities are small .

Steady/Unsteady Analysis. An analysis is said to be Steady when, after a short amount of time, the quantities describingì fluid motion (velocity, pressure, temperature) reach a constant value, Unsteady otherwise. An example can be the flow of water inside a cylindrical pipe with a constant velocity. When the flow starts the values of water velocity inside the pipe change from their initial value to the final values, but when the water have been flowing for an enough long time, velocity (as well as other quantities) values do not change anymore ( Steady ). Differently, if the value of velocity at which the water enters the pipe changes continuously, the quantities inside the pipe will never reach a constant value ( Unsteady ).

Boundary Condition. In simple terms, they are the values that quantities like velocity, pressure, temperature assumes on the Domain Limits (or Domain Boundaries ). For example, if the analysis involves water that enters a pipe at a given velocity known by the user, one boundary condition will be the water velocity value on the pipe entranc e (that will be one Domain Boundary). In the same way, if the water exits the pipe arriving in a ambient at a given pressure, another boundary condition will be the value of the pressure on the pipe exit (that will be another Domain Boundary). Boundary Conditions must be specified for every variable on every Domain Boundary.

Convergence. The Fluid Dynamics equations are solved by means of numerical methods, that are generally iterative. The number of iterations needed to obtain the correct solution varies. It is possible to measure how far one is from the correct solution, and to use that measure to stop the iterative method when the correct solution is reached. When it happens the analysis is said to be Converged or to have reached Convergence , which simply means that the obtained solution is correct.

Postprocessing. It is the phase when the user looks at the analysis data to extract the information he was looking for, that are the reason he performed the CFD analysis in the first place. Post processing tools are typically used to help the user in this task.

Contour Plot. This is one way to visualize the results of a CFD analysis. It is the representation, typically coloured, of quantities distribution inside the Computational Domain. Usually, it is a two dimensional plot associated with a legend. It can be used to find out zones where pressure spikes or falls below a certain value, spots of velocity peaks or where temperature exceeds safety limits.

Streamline Plot. This is another post processing tool. It is typically used to show the trajectory that a very small particle would trace if immersed in the flow as resulting from the analysis. It is very useful to understand motion features, how fluid particles interact with the geometry and how their path is affected by those interactions.

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CFD Trading Explained for Investors

Contracts for Difference, or CFD for short, allow traders to bet on the movement of an investment without having to own the investment. Without the cash outlay of buying a stock or FOREX currency, investors can trade with as little as $50 in markets where options cost $1000’s.

While CFD online trading is popular and offers higher profits for smaller investments, CFDs can also cause a trader to lose more money than invested.

CFDs allow for high margin trading

The primary advantage of CFD trading in FOREX, as well as other markets, is the ability to profit from a small investment using heavy leverage. For example, some CFD brokers allow 2% margin for trading. This means a $200 CFD contract could profit from a $10,000 FOREX tradIt also means the $200 initial margin could be wiped out if the $10k FOREX trade goes slightly negative for the trader. Both the upside and downside of FOREX trading gets magnified with CFD margin rate.

Everything Remains between the broker and the client

Brokers are the middleman between clients and the financial markets in most trading. With CFD online trading, the client is perating directly with the broker and never interacts with the market. This means the broker backs the trade. A financially sound broker will honor trades, but a broker that does not have substantial reserves may find itself unable to honor trade profits. Before trading CFDs with any broker, confirm the broker has a high credit rating.

CFD Online trading involves both higher profits and possible losses than options

Options are similar to CFDs but much more expensive, bid on the open market, and limit losses to only the amount invested. CFDs will yield much higher profits based on the margin levels than options. Investors are, however, exposed to unlimited loss potential with CFDs, similar to with futures. Traders need to keep cash reserves to meet requirements for CFD trades that go negative, or lose money.

CFD trading glossary. CFD terms and expressions explained

Is normally an official action to either change the internal economic policies to correct a payment imbalance or the official currency rate.


The growth of value in any financial instrument.


The purchase or sale of an instrument and the simultaneous taking of an equal and opposite position in a related market, in order to take advantage of a price differential of the instrument between markets.

The quoted price at which a customer can buy a currency pair. Also referred to as the ‘offer,’ ‘ask price,’ or ‘ask rate.’


Either a positive balance or in the context of foreign exchange the right to receive a specific currency from a counterparty (broker) as brought about from an outstanding forward or spot deal.


Nickname for the Australian Dollar used by traders.


A systematic record of the economic transactions during a given period for a country.

Or Trading Band, is the range in which a currency is permitted to move against another, according to restrictions imposed on the currency by the local Government.


The rate at which a central bank is prepared to lend money to its domestic banking system.


For foreign exchange the base currency refers to the first currency in a currency pair. For example, in a EUR/USD currency pair, the EUR is the base currency.


A group of currencies normally used to manage the exchange rate of a currency, usually each currency in the basket is weighted to form the exchange rate.


A bearish market describes a market that appears to be in a long-term decline. Bearish markets tend to develop when the economy enters a recession, unemployment is high, and inflation is rising.

The quoted price where a customer can sell a currency pair. This is also known as the “bid price” or “bid rate.”


The difference in pips between the “bid” (sell) and the “ask” (offer) price.


A technical indicator that allows users to compare volatility and relative price levels over a period of time. It consists of three bands designed to encompass the majority of a security’s price action. Prices will often meet resistance at the upper band and support at the lower band.


A market is considered to be bullish during the long-term climb. Bullish markets tend to develop when the economy is strong, the unemployment rate is low, and inflation is under control. The emotional and psychological state of investors also affects the market.


A condition that indicates a good time to buy an instrument. The exact circumstances of the signal will be determined by the indicator that an analyst is using.

Call Rate

The overnight inter-bank interest rate.

Candlestick Chart

A form of Japanese charting system that has become popular in the West. A narrow line shows the day’s price range. A wider body marks the area between the open and the close. If the close is above the open, the body is green or blue; if the close is below the open, the body is red.

(Value same day) normally refers to an exchange transaction contracted for settlement on the day the deal is struck. This term is mainly used in the North American markets.

Central Bank

A nation’s main regulatory bank. Traditionally, the primary responsibility is development and implementation of monetary policy.

Central Rate

Exchange rates against the ECU adopted for each currency within the EMS. Currencies have limited movement from the central rate according to the relevant band.


An agreement to buy or sell a specified amount of a particular currency or option for a specified period of time in the future (see Futures contract).


The process by which an asset or liability denominated in one currency is exchanged for an asset or liability denominated in another currency.

Convertible Currency

Currency which can be freely exchanged for other currencies or gold without special authorization from the appropriate central bank.

Cross Rate

An exchange rate between two currencies, usually constructed from the individual exchange rates of the two currencies, measured against the USD.

Currency Pair

The two currencies that make up a foreign exchange rate. For example, EUR/USD is a currency pair.

Day Trader

Speculators who take positions in financial markets which are then liquidated prior to the close of the same trading day.

Day Trading

Refers to opening and closing the same position or positions within one day’s trading.

Delivery Date

The date of maturity of the contract, when the exchange of the currencies is made; this date is more commonly known as the value date in the FX or Money markets.


A fall in the value of a currency or any financial instrument.

A candlestick formation with a body so small that the open and close prices are equal. A Doji occurs when the open and close for that day are the same, or very close to being the same.

Entry Limit

An order to buy or sell a foreign currency against another at a specific price. As opposed to a market order, limit orders might not be filled if the market moves away from the specified price.

Entry Stop

An instruction to the broker to buy or sell a currency pair when it trades beyond a specified price. A buy order is at a rate that is higher than the current market rate; a sell order is at a rate that is lower than the current market rate. They serve to either protect a trader’s profits or limit your losses.

A single European currency called the Euro, which officially replaced the national currencies of the member EU countries.


This is the last day on which an option may either be exercised.

Fed Fund Rate

The interest rate where registered banks can borrow from the Fed. This also indicates the Fed’s view as to the state of the money supply.

Federal Reserve (Fed)

The Central Bank of the United States.

Federal Open Market Committee, the committee that sets money supply targets in the US which tend to be implemented through Fed Fund interest rates etc.

Foreign Exchange

The purchase or sale of a currency against sale or purchase of another. Online forex trading involves off-exchange Forex transactions.

Foreign Exchange Swap

Transaction which involves the actual exchange of two currencies (principal amount only) on a specific date at a rate agreed at the time of the conclusion of the contract (short leg), at a date further in the future at a rate agreed at the time of the contract (the long leg), in reality this is a combination of a spot and an opposite forward deal.


A term commonly used when referring to the foreign exchange market.

Fundamental Analysis

Thorough analysis of economic and political data with the goal of determining future movements in a financial market.


The macro economic factors that are accepted as forming the foundation for the relative value of a currency, these include inflation, growth, trade balance, government deficit, and interest rates.

A term commonly used when referring to the foreign exchange market or a short for foreign exchange.

Gold Standard

The original system for supporting the value of currency issued. When this was used the price of gold was fixed against the currency, this meant that any increase in the supply of gold did not lower the price of gold but caused prices to increase.

Gross Domestic Product

Total value of a country’s output, income or expenditure produced within the country’s physical borders.

Gross National Product

Gross domestic product plus “factor income from abroad” – income earned from investment or work abroad.

Hard Currency

Any of the major world currencies that is well traded and easily converted into other currencies.


The practice of undertaking one investment activity in order to protect against loss in another, e.g. selling short to nullify a previous purchase, or buying long to offset a previous short sale. While hedges reduce potential losses, they also tend to reduce potential profits.


(CPI – Consumer Price Index) Continued rise in the general price level in conjunction with a related drop in purchasing power. Sometimes referred to as an excessive movement in such price levels.

Initial Margin

The required initial deposit of collateral to enter into a position as a guarantee on future performance.

Nickname for the New Zealand dollar used by traders.

Leading Indicators

A statistic that is considered to precede changes in economic growth rates and total business activity, e.g. factory orders.


The usage of a margin to trade on a larger capital base. Leverage is a double-edged sword, of course, as it can significantly increase your losses as well as your gains.

Line Chart

Price charts that connect periodical closed prices of a given market over a span of time that form a curving line on the chart. This type of chart is most useful with overlay or comparison charts that are commonly employed in inter-market analysis.


The term liquidity of a market or financial instrument describes how much and how often the financial instrument is traded (is bought or sold). High liquidity means that there are many buyers and sellers of an instrument in the market, where low liquidity indicates that not many buyers/sellers have an interest in the specific trading instrument.

A market position where the client has bought a currency he previously did not hold. Normally expressed in base currency terms.


Nickname for the Canadian Dollar used by traders.

The standard unit size of a transaction. Typically, one Standard lot is equal to100,000 units of the base currency, 10,000 units if it’s a Mini, or 1,000 units if it’s a Micro lot.


The amount of money or collateral that must be, in the first instance, provided or thereafter, maintained, to ensure against losses on open contracts. Initial must be placed before a trade is entered into.

Margin Call

A trader receives a margin call from a broker when the equity in their margin trading account falls below the level required to cover potential losses.

Market Order

An order to buy or sell a security at the prevailing market price.


The price, or rate, that a willing seller is prepared to sell at, it is also the best price available to a trader to buy at.


May occur due to the fact that there is no liquidity in the market. Another reason may be a technical error that needs to be investigated by the broker.

Open Position

Any deal which has not been settled by physical payment or reversed by an equal and opposite deal for the same value date.

Over The Counter (OTC)

Used to describe any transaction that is not conducted over an exchange.


A deal from today until the next business day.


A system where a currency moves in line with another currency, some pegs are strict while others have bands of movement.

The term used in currency market to represent the smallest incremental move an exchange rate can make. Depending on context, normally one basis point (0.0001 in the case of EUR/USD, GBD/USD, USD/CHF and .01 in the case of USD/JPY).


The netted total commitments in a given currency. A position can be either flat or square (no exposure), long, (more currency bought than sold), or short (more currency sold than bought).

Quote Currency

The second currency in a currency pair is referred to as the quote currency. For example, in a USD/CHF currency pair, the Swiss Franc is the quote currency. This is also referred to as the secondary currency or the counter currency.


A recovery in price after a period of decline.


The distance between the high price and the low price for a given time period. For example, the daily range is equal to the day’s high minus the same day’s low.

The price of one currency in terms of another.


A price level at which you would expect selling to take place.

Risk Capital

The amount of money that an individual can afford to invest, which, if lost should not affect their lifestyle.

Risk Management

The identification of potential risks that can lead to losses and the mitigation of these risks usually under a certain plan.


Where the settlement of a deal is rolled forward to another value date based on the interest rate differential of the two currencies, the swap is also called Tomorrow Next, Tom-Next or T/N.

Security Deposit

The amount of money needed to open or maintain a position. Also known as ‘margin’.


To go “short” is to have sold an instrument without actually owning it, and to hold a short position with expectations that the price will decline so it can be bought back in the future at a profit.


Refers to the positive/negative ( appreciating/depreciating) pip value between where a take profit/stop loss order becomes a market order and where that market order may be filled.

Soft Market

More potential sellers than buyers, which creates an environment where rapid price falls are likely.


The difference between the bid and the ask price.


A sudden upward or downward movement in price that happens in a short period of time.


British pound, also known as cable.


A price level at which there is an expectation of buying to take place, a break in the support often leads to lower prices. See resistance.

Swap is the difference in the interest rates of the Central Banks for each currency plus the broker’s commission when positions are carried forward overnight. The swap can be positive or negative depending on the interest rates; it is also called rollover. Swap depends on the instrument, if you are long or short and you can both pay it or receive it.


Nickname for Swiss Franc used by traders.

Technical Analysis

An effort to forecast future market activity by analyzing market data such as charts, price trends, and volume.

Thin Market

A market in which trading volume is low and in which consequently bid and ask quotes are wide and the liquidity of the instrument traded is low.

A minimum change in price, up or down.

Trade Date

The date on which a trade occurs.

Trailing Stop

A stop-loss level set above or below the current price that adjusts as the price fluctuates.


The buying or selling of currencies resulting from the execution of an order.

Transaction Date

The date on which a trade occurs.


Refers to the direction of prices. Rising peaks and troughs constitute an uptrend; falling peaks and troughs constitute a downtrend. A trading range is characterized by horizontal peaks and troughs. Trends are generally classified into major (longer than a year), intermediate (one to six months), or minor (less than a month).

Trend Line

Straight lines drawn on a chart below reaction lows (in an uptrend) or above rally peaks (in a downtrend) that determine the steepness of the current trend. The breaking of a trend line usually signals a trend reversal.


A transaction executed at a price greater than the previous transaction.


A statistical measure of a market or a security’s price movements over time and is calculated by using standard deviation. Associated with high volatility is a high degree of risk.

Working Day

A day on which the banks in a currency’s principal financial center are open for business. For FX transactions, a working day only occurs if the bank in both financial centers are open for business (all relevant currency centers in the case of a cross are open).

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Торговля CFD что это

Вероятно, любой человек, знакомый с рынком форекс или инвестированием в акции встречался с загадочным термином CFD контракты, представляющим собой контракты на разницу цен. В статье расскажу, что такое торговля CFD контрактами простыми словами, как выбрать CFD брокера для торговли и какие популярные стратегии применяют трейдеры для заработка на CFD контрактах.

  • CFD контракты простыми словами
  • Торговля CFD что это
  • СFD брокер что это и как выбрать
  • Торговля CFD финмакс
  • Преимущества и недостатки CFD

CFD контракты простыми словами

CFD контракты – это тип ставки между двумя сторонами относительно будущей стоимости отдельного финансового инструмента (валюты, акции и т.д.), при котором обе стороны обязуются урегулировать сумму, равную разнице между ценой открытия и ценой закрытия позиции. Отсюда и термин «контракт на разницу цен».

Простыми словами, если вы купите такой контракт и цена базового инструмента возрастет, вы получите соответствующую разницу со стороны брокера, продавшего его вам. С другой стороны – если цена упадет, разница будет взята с вашего счета.

Контракты CFD были созданы в начале 90-х годов Брайаном Киланом и Джоном Вудом. На начальном этапе они были предложены инвесторам для обеспечения позиций по акциям. Вскоре брокеры начали расширять предложения контрактов, в которые входили эксклюзивно акции Лондонской фондовой биржи. Были введены контракты на акции с других торговых площадок, а затем контракты на товары, облигации и валюты. CFD, основанные на основных индексах, таких как S&P500, Dow Jones, FTSE и DAX, быстро стали популярными и часто используемыми инструментами.

Контракты CFD были созданы в начале 90-х годов Брайаном Киланом и Джоном Вудом. На начальном этапе они были предложены инвесторам для обеспечения позиций по акциям. Вскоре брокеры начали расширять предложения контрактов, в которые входили экслюзивно акции Лондонской фондовой биржи. Были введены контракты на акции с других торговых площадок, а затем контракты на товары, облигации и валюты. CFD, основанные на основных индексах, таких как S&P500, Dow Jones, FTSE и DAX, быстро стали популярными и часто используемыми инструментами этого типа.

Торговля CFD что это

Совершая операции по открытию позиции по контракту CFD, нужно знать, что вы не становитесь держателем базового инструмента. Это ставка с другой стороной контракта, будет ли ее цена расти или падать.

Рассмотрим на примере. Допустим, у вас есть 1000$ и желание инвестировать в акции Microsoft (для простоты предположим, что акции стоят 100$ за штуку). Вы идете на биржу, открываете счет и переводите туда средства. Помимо комиссий и других сборов, инвестируете 1000 долларов США. На них вы приобрели 10 акций Microsoft. Таким образом, вы стали физическим владельцем акций и частичным владельцем компании. Вы имеете право участвовать в общем собрании акционеров и получать дивиденды.

Приобретая контракт CFD на эти акции, вы не становитесь их владельцем. Вы делаете ставки на будущий курс и получаете прибыль от самого движения цены.

CFD контракты позволяют торговать:

  • Акциями,
  • Валютой,
  • Криптовалютой,
  • Индексами,
  • Сырьем,
  • Долговыми обязательствами.

При работе с CFD контрактами, вы платите только комиссию брокеру за открытие и удержание позиции.

Отличительной особенностью торговли CFD от трейдинга на рынке Forex является получение прибыли от разницы между ценой покупки и продажи. Например:

  • Счет имеет кредитное плечо 1:1,
  • Вы купили CFD контракт акции Apple за 950$,
  • Через месяц контракт стоит 1150$,
  • Вы закрыли сделку, получив прибыль 200$.

Применение в торговле кредитного плеча многократно увеличивает профит. Но не забывайте про риски слива депозита, при слишком большом кредитном плече. Я рекомендую использовать максимальное плечо 1:10. Контролируйте риски и не торопитесь.

CFD брокер что это такое

На фондовом рынке работает множество брокеров. Каждый из них специализируется на конкретных операциях. CFD брокерами называют брокеров, основной акцент деятельности которых направлен на торговлю CFD контрактами.

Из топовых CFD брокеров рекомендую:

  • Амаркетс – проверенный и надежный,
  • Roboforex – титан рынка форекс с крупными поставщиками ликвидности.

Открыв один счет, можно приобрести акции западных и российских компаний, сырьевые и криптовалютные контракты. Всего к торговле доступно 10 000 инструментов.

После открытия и пополнения счета, можно начинать торговать. Общий принцип торговли одинаковый с другими инструментами.

Если вы новичок и хотите открыть для себя финансовые рынки, я рекомендую ознакомиться с моим курсом: “Обучение трейдингу“, где вы найдете ответы на основные вопросы.

Торговля CFD финмакс

Торговля CFD через финмакс (Finmax) дает возможность зарабатывать как на повышении, так и на снижении цен:

  • Если вы думаете, что цена инструмента вырастет, покупайте контракт CFD (у вас длинная позиция). Вы получаете прибыль, когда цена увеличивается.
  • Если вы думаете, что цена инструмента упадет, продайте контракт CFD (у вас короткая позиция). Вы получаете прибыль, когда цена падает.

Предупреждаю – прибыль всегда идет рука об руку с убытками. Если рынок движется в нежелательном направлении, вы понесете убытки.

Торговля CFD стратегии

Среди пользователей брокера финмакс популярными являются 3 подхода к торговле CFD:

  1. Торговля внутри недели. Вы открываете сделку во вторник, закрываете в любой день до пятницы. Торговая активность сделки проходит внутри одной недели.
  2. Долгосрочная торговля. Сделка держится от недели и выше.
  3. Комбинированная торговля. Этот подход совмещает ручную и автоматизированную торговлю. Рекомендуется для знакомых с трейдингом людей.

Вопрос выработки стратегий достаточно сложный. За 6 лет работы на финансовых рынках, я понял, что одинаковая стратегия у двух людей может работать по-разному. Разрабатывайте собственную методику торговли и придерживайтесь ее.

Хотите протестировать свою стратегию? Открывайте демо-счет и пробуйте.

В заключении, разберем достоинства и недостатки торговли CFD контрактов.

Преимущества CFD контрактов:

  • Кредитное плечо. Вы можете сделать относительно высокие инвестиции с небольшим капиталовложением. Например, маржинальное требование для контракта CFD DAX составляет 703 евро, а его стоимость – 3 406 евро.
  • Второе преимущество – простота инструмента. Процесс покупки CFD такой же, как и для акций. При покупке CFD, вы открываете длинную позицию и спекулируете на повышении цены. При продаже CFD, вы открываете короткую позицию и спекулируете на падении цены базового актива. Цены покупки и продажи в принципе совпадают с ценами базового актива. Прибыль отразится на вашем счете.
  • CFD являются хорошей альтернативой фьючерсам. Большим преимуществом CFD по сравнению с фьючерсами является размер контракта и гарантийный депозит. Например, в контракте фьючерса индекса S&P500 (E-mini) маржа для одного контракта составляет около 8 000 долларов США, а маржа для покупки одного контракта CFD для индекса S&P500 составляет 175 долларов США. Контракты на разницу цен позволяют быть более гибкими, особенно со счетами менее десятков тысяч долларов. Кроме того, следует учитывать операционные издержки (комиссии), которые для CFD контрактов значительно ниже.

Конечно, контракты CFD имеют и недостатки:

  • Проценты, которые вы платите, если сохраняете открытые позиции на следующий день. Проценты вы можете оплатить или получить. Кроме того, имея CFD, вы не имеете права голосовать на собрании в противоположность акциям, купленным на бирже.
  • Предоставляемое кредитное плечо. Торговля с кредитным плечом позволяет открывать большие позиции с относительно низкой суммой входа, т.е. получать больше прибыли. Однако не грамотное использование кредитного плеча может сработать не в вашу пользу, если положение на рынке развивается не должным образом.

Поэтому, если у вас нет опыта торговли CFD, лучше не открывать большую позицию, которая не даст вам спать по ночам. Хорошей практикой является определение уровня потерь и выставление стоп-лосса. Он поможет избежать многих стрессов.

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