Discriminating Between Quality Pivot Point Set-ups and Non-quality Pivot Point Set-ups

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The Pivot Point

A Pivot Point is a central point on a vessel which remains fixed as the bow and stern swing around it. Fixed is not really correct, because it moves forward or aft as the vessel moves through the water as stated below:

1. Ship stopped

Unless stated otherwise. Each example assumes a ship on an even keel in calm conditions and still water. In this situation, no forces are involved and the ship has a pivot point coinciding with its centre of gravity approximately amidships.

2. Making Headway

Two forces now come into play. Firstly the forward momentum of the ship and secondly, longitudinal resistance to the forward momentum, created by the water ahead of the ship. These two forces must ultimately strike a balance and the pivot point moves forward. As a rough guide, it can be assumed that at a steady speed the pivot point will be approximately 25% or a 1/4 of the ship’s length from forward.

3. Making Sternway

The situation is now totally reversed. The momentum of sternway must balance longitudinal resistance, this time, created by the water astern of the ship. The pivot point now moves aft and establishes itself approximately 25% or a 1/4 of the ship’s length from the stern.
It should also be stressed that other factors such as acceleration, the shape of hull and speed may all affect the position of the pivot point. The figures quoted here, are perfectly adequate for a simple and practical working knowledge of the subject.

Look over the side and see where the calm water of the swing meets the ripples coming off the hull. This is the pivot point. The mastery of pivot points is what makes an outstanding shiphandler.

Turning Levers and Moments

More important perhaps, than the position of the pivot point, is the effect its shifting nature has upon the many turning forces that can influence a ship. These are rudder force, transverse thrust, bow thrust, tug force, interactive forces and the forces of wind and tide.

Vessel Stopped

If we look at the ship used in our example, we can see that it has a length overall of 160 metres. It is stopped in the water and two tugs are secure fore and aft, on long lines, through centre leads.

If the tugs apply the same bollard pull of say 15 tonnes each, it is to a position 80m fore and aft of the pivot point.

Thus, two equal turning levers and moments of 80m x 15t (1200tm) are created resulting in even lateral motion and no rate of turn.

Making Headway

With the ship making steady headway, however, the pivot point has shifted to a position 40m from the bow. The forward tug is now working on a very poor turning lever of 40m x 15t(600tm), whilst the after tug is working on an extremely good turning lever of 120m x 15 t (1800tm).

This results in a swing of the bow to starboard.

Making Sternway

The efficiency of the tugs will change totally when the ship, by contrast, makes sternway. Now the pivot point has moved aft to a position 40m from the stern. The forward tug is working on an excellent turning lever of 120m x 15t(1800tm) whilst the after tug has lost its efficiency to a reduced turning lever of 40m x 15t(600tm).

This now results in a swing of the bow to port. (See illustration below)

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Vessel Turning

When making a turn the whole vessel does not pass on the curved path formed by the turning ship. The pivot point, in this case, located about one-fourth of the length from the bow, is the one that traces the curvature of this path so that the stern of the ship swings in a wide area outside of the curved path while the bow swings inside and needs a smaller area. This behaviour results in a certain length of the ship’s turning radius that depends on the ship’s load condition, trim and speed.

A smaller turning radius can be attained if the pivot point is shifted more forward closer to the bow. This manoeuvre can be achieved through the anchor dredging technique where the anchor at the side of the desired turn. This way the forward movement as the vessel turns is reduced because the ship turns about the pivot point that is now near the bow where the anchor hawse pipe is located. See illustration below.

Anchor Dredging Technique: Smaller turning radius, pivot point moves forward.

Provocator

Global Recent Activity

очень понравилась вязкость на послевкусии. и в целом не плохое пиво

Хороший, можно брать

Добротный лагерок. Но пил после литра сильно охмеленного пива из пред. чекина, поэтому горечи не ощутил, а она есть.

Стандартный немецкий пилс с не понятным для меня послевкусием.

Не понял как-то, от слова совсем. Чисто, горчинка имеется, но как-то совсем не зацепило. Реально какие-то перекликания с масс маркетом.

Pivot Point

What is a Pivot Point?

A pivot point is a technical analysis indicator, or calculations, used to determine the overall trend of the market over different time frames. The pivot point itself is simply the average of the high, low and closing prices from the previous trading day. On the subsequent day, trading above the pivot point is thought to indicate ongoing bullish sentiment, while trading below the pivot point indicates bearish sentiment.

The pivot point is the basis for the indicator, but it also includes other support and resistance levels that are projected based on the pivot point calculation. All these levels help traders see where the price could experience support or resistance. Similarly, if the price moves through these levels it lets the trader know the price is trending in that direction.

  • When the price of an asset is trading above the pivot point, it indicates the day is bullish or positive.
  • When the price of an asset is trading below the pivot point, it indicates the day is bearish or negative.
  • The indicator typically includes four additional levels: S1, S2, R1, and R2. These stand for support one and two, and resistance one and two.
  • Support and resistance one and two may cause reversals, but they may also be used to confirm the trend. For example, if the price is falling and moves below S1, it helps confirm the downtrend and indicate a possible continuation to S2.

The Formulas for Pivot Points:

High indicates the high price from the prior trading day,

Low indicates the price from the prior trading day, and

Close indicates the closing price from the prior trading day.

How to Calculate Pivot Points

The pivot point indicator can be added to a chart, and the levels will automatically be calculated and shown. Here’s how to calculate them yourself, keeping in mind that pivot points are predominantly used by day traders and are based on the high, low, and close from the prior trading day. If it is Wednesday morning, use the high, low, and close from Tuesday to create the pivot point levels for the Wednesday trading day.

  1. After the market closes, or before it opens the next day, find the high, low and close from the most recent day.
  2. Sum the high, low, and close and then divide by three.
  3. Mark this price on the chart as P.
  4. Once P is known, calculate S1, S2, R1, and R2. The high and low in these calculations are from the prior trading day.

Pivot Points

What Do Pivot Points Tell You?

Pivot points are an intra-day indicator for trading futures, commodities, and stocks. Unlike moving averages or oscillators, they are static and remain at the same prices throughout the day. This means traders can use the levels to help plan out their trading in advance. For example, they know that, if the price falls below the pivot point, they will likely be shorting early in the session. If the price is above the pivot point, they will be buying. S1, S2, R1, and R2 can be used as target prices for such trades, as well as stop loss levels.

Combining pivot points with other trend indicators is a common practice with traders. A pivot point that also overlaps or converges with a 50-period or 200-period moving average, or Fibonacci extension level, becomes a stronger support/resistance level.

The Difference Between Pivot Points and Fibonacci Retracements

Pivot points and Fibonacci retracements or extensions both draw horizontal lines to mark potential support and resistance areas.

Fibonacci retracement and extension levels can be created by connecting any price points on a chart. Once the levels are chosen, then lines are drawn at percentages of the price range selected.

Pivot points don’t use percentages and are based on fixed numbers: the high, low, and close of the prior day.

Limitations of Pivot Points

Pivot points are based on a simple calculation, and while they work for some traders, others may not find them useful. There is no assurance the price will stop at, reverse at, or even reach the levels created on the chart. Other times the price will move back and forth through a level. As with all indicators, it should only be used as part of a complete trading plan.

FROM — использование PIVOT и UNPIVOT FROM – Using PIVOT and UNPIVOT

Область применения: SQL Server База данных SQL Azure Azure Synapse Analytics (Хранилище данных SQL) Parallel Data Warehouse APPLIES TO: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure Synapse Analytics (SQL DW) Parallel Data Warehouse

Реляционные операторы PIVOT и UNPIVOT можно использовать для изменения возвращающего табличное значение выражения в другой таблице. You can use the PIVOT and UNPIVOT relational operators to change a table-valued expression into another table. PIVOT поворачивает возвращающее табличное значение выражение, преобразуя уникальные значения одного столбца выражения в несколько выходных столбцов. PIVOT rotates a table-valued expression by turning the unique values from one column in the expression into multiple columns in the output. В случае необходимости PIVOT также объединяет оставшиеся повторяющиеся значения столбца и отображает их в выходных данных. And PIVOT runs aggregations where they’re required on any remaining column values that are wanted in the final output. UNPIVOT выполняет действия, обратные PIVOT, преобразуя столбцы возвращающего табличное значение выражения в значения столбца. UNPIVOT carries out the opposite operation to PIVOT by rotating columns of a table-valued expression into column values.

Синтаксис PIVOT является более простым и понятным, чем синтаксис, который может выполнить то же действие с помощью последовательности инструкций SELECT. CASE . The syntax for PIVOT provides is simpler and more readable than the syntax that may otherwise be specified in a complex series of SELECT. CASE statements. Полное описание синтаксиса инструкции PIVOT см. в разделе FROM (Transact-SQL). For a complete description of the syntax for PIVOT , see FROM (Transact-SQL).

Синтаксис Syntax

В следующем синтаксисе приводится использование оператора PIVOT . The following syntax summarizes how to use the PIVOT operator.

Remarks Remarks

Идентификаторы столбцов в предложении UNPIVOT следуют параметрам сортировки каталога. The column identifiers in the UNPIVOT clause follow the catalog collation. Для База данных SQL SQL Database параметры сортировки всегда соответствуют SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS . For База данных SQL SQL Database , the collation is always SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS . Для частично автономных баз данных SQL Server SQL Server параметры сортировки всегда соответствуют Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS_SC . For SQL Server SQL Server partially contained databases, the collation is always Latin1_General_100_CI_AS_KS_WS_SC . Если столбец используется в сочетании с другими столбцами, для предотвращения конфликтов требуется предложение collate ( COLLATE DATABASE_DEFAULT ). If the column is combined with other columns, then a collate clause ( COLLATE DATABASE_DEFAULT ) is required to avoid conflicts.

Базовый пример PIVOT Basic PIVOT Example

В следующем примере кода создается таблица, включающая два столбца и четыре строки. The following code example produces a two-column table that has four rows.

Результирующий набор: Here is the result set.

Для значения DaysToManufacture , равного трем, продукты не определены. No products are defined with three DaysToManufacture .

Следующий код отображает тот же самый результат, сведенный так, что значения DaysToManufacture становятся заголовками. The following code displays the same result, pivoted so that the DaysToManufacture values become the column headings. Для значения трех [3] дней приводится столбец, даже если результат равен NULL . A column is provided for three [3] days, even though the results are NULL .

Результирующий набор: Here is the result set.

Сложный пример PIVOT Complex PIVOT Example

Обычно оператор PIVOT может быть полезен при создании отчетов с перекрестными ссылками для предоставления сводки по данным. A common scenario where PIVOT can be useful is when you want to generate cross-tabulation reports to give a summary of the data. Например, пусть необходимо обратиться к таблице PurchaseOrderHeader образца базы данных AdventureWorks2020 для определения количества заказов на покупку, размещенных некоторым сотрудником. For example, suppose you want to query the PurchaseOrderHeader table in the AdventureWorks2020 sample database to determine the number of purchase orders placed by certain employees. Требуемые данные, отсортированные по поставщикам, можно извлечь при выполнении следующего запроса. The following query provides this report, ordered by vendor.

Здесь приводится частичный результирующий набор. Here is a partial result set.

Данные, возвращаемые в результате выполнения указанного подзапроса выборки, сводятся в столбец EmployeeID . The results returned by this subselect statement are pivoted on the EmployeeID column.

Уникальные значения столбца EmployeeID становятся полями итогового результирующего набора. The unique values returned by the EmployeeID column become fields in the final result set. Таким образом, имеется столбец, соответствующий каждому идентификатору EmployeeID , указанному в предложении PIVOT: в данном случае это сотрудники 250 , 251 , 256 , 257 и 260 . As such, there’s a column for each EmployeeID number specified in the pivot clause: in this case employees 250 , 251 , 256 , 257 , and 260 . PurchaseOrderID служит столбцом значений, по которому группируются столбцы, возвращаемые в конечный вывод и называемые столбцами группирования. The PurchaseOrderID column serves as the value column, against which the columns returned in the final output, which are called the grouping columns, are grouped. В этом случае значения столбцов группирования обрабатываются с помощью функции COUNT . In this case, the grouping columns are aggregated by the COUNT function. Обратите внимание, что при вычислении функции PurchaseOrderID для каждого сотрудника появится предупреждающее сообщение о том, что значения NULL столбца COUNT не учитываются. Notice that a warning message appears that indicates that any null values appearing in the PurchaseOrderID column weren’t considered when computing the COUNT for each employee.

При статистической обработке данных с использованием агрегатных функций, содержащих оператор PIVOT , пустые значения столбцов не учитываются. When aggregate functions are used with PIVOT , the presence of any null values in the value column are not considered when computing an aggregation.

Пример UNPIVOT UNPIVOT Example

Оператор UNPIVOT выполняет действия, обратные оператору PIVOT , преобразуя столбцы данных в строки. UNPIVOT carries out almost the reverse operation of PIVOT , by rotating columns into rows. Допустим, что таблица, созданная в ходе выполнения предыдущего примера, хранится в базе данных и имеет идентификатор pvt . Пусть необходимо преобразовать идентификаторы столбцов Emp1 , Emp2 , Emp3 , Emp4 и Emp5 в строки данных, сгруппированные по поставщикам. Suppose the table produced in the previous example is stored in the database as pvt , and you want to rotate the column identifiers Emp1 , Emp2 , Emp3 , Emp4 , and Emp5 into row values that correspond to a particular vendor. Таким образом, необходимо определить два дополнительных столбца. As such, you must identify two additional columns. Столбец, содержащий значения поворачиваемых столбцов ( Emp1 , Emp2 . ), будет называться Employee , а столбец, который будет содержать значения, в данный момент существующие в поворачиваемых столбцах, будет называться Orders . The column that will contain the column values that you’re rotating ( Emp1 , Emp2 . ) will be called Employee , and the column that will hold the values that currently exist under the columns being rotated will be called Orders . Указанные столбцы связаны соответственно с такими параметрами в определении на языке , как pivot_columnиvalue_column Transact-SQL Transact-SQL . These columns correspond to the pivot_column and value_column, respectively, in the Transact-SQL Transact-SQL definition. Вот запрос. Here is the query.

Здесь приводится частичный результирующий набор. Here is a partial result set.

Обратите внимание, что оператор UNPIVOT не является в точности обратным оператору PIVOT . Notice that UNPIVOT isn’t the exact reverse of PIVOT . Оператор PIVOT выполняет статистическую обработку и слияние нескольких строк в единую выходную строку. PIVOT carries out an aggregation and merges possible multiple rows into a single row in the output. Оператор UNPIVOT не восстанавливает исходные возвращающие табличное значение выражения, так как строки были объединены. UNPIVOT doesn’t reproduce the original table-valued expression result because rows have been merged. Кроме того, оператор UNPIVOT удаляет значения NULL из обрабатываемых им данных. Also, null values in the input of UNPIVOT disappear in the output. Поэтому в случае наличия в исходных столбцах значений NULL данные на выходе могут отличаться от данных до их обработки с помощью оператора PIVOT . When the values disappear, it shows that there may have been original null values in the input before the PIVOT operation.

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